of the cold, hard data that was presented at trial about the clear limitations Native American
communities in Montana face, and how the costs associated with the Ballot Interference and
Protection Act ("BIPA") are simply to high and to burdensome to remain the law of the State



This matter was tried before this Court on September 8, 2020 to September 10, 2020, sitting

without a jury. Plaintiffs Westem Native Voice, Montana Native Vote, Assiniboine and Sioux
Tribes ofFort Peck, Blackfeet Nation, Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes, Crow Tribe and

Fort Belknap Indian Community appeared and were represented by Natalie Landreth, Jacqueline

De Le6n, Samantha Kelty, and Megan Condon of the Native American Rights Fund, Alora
Thomas, Ihaab Syed and Theresa Lee of ACLU's Voting Rights Project, and Alex Rate and Lillian

Alvemaz of the ACLU of Montana. Defendants Corey Stapleton, Tim Fox and Jeff Mangan
appeared and were represented by Aislinn Brown, Hannah Tokerud and Stuart Segrest from the

Montana Attomey General's offrce. Numerous exhibits were offered, admitted and referenced in
separate court filings. The issue at


trial was whether the Ballot Interference Prevention Act

violates Plaintiffs' constitutional right to vote, right to freedom of speech, right to

freedom of association and right to due process. Having heard the evidence and reviewed the
proposed Findings

of Fact and Conclusions of Law of both parties, the Coun now makes




A. Voting in Montana.


In-person voting in Montana is logistically challenging due to the state's large size and

rural nature. Agreed Fact No. 48,69,70.


Select target paragraph3